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Julie Borst Reed
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Kirk S. Reed
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Neutering and other Veterinary treatments in the New Millennium

Intro to Dr Zink's article by Julie Borst Reed

Introduction:
Over the last few decades, in learning all we can and as we continue to study to learn all we can to produce the finest all-round Standard Poodles here at Tiara, often the common wisdom known among long-time associates is debunked and over-ridden by new developments and or better science applied.  This has occurred with both canine purebred breeding schemes and basic canine husbandry. The "gotta produce intense line breeding" attitudes of the late 20th Century as well as several regularly completed veterinary treatments done by most breeders top the list.  You can read information about the true damage done in a tightly closed gene pool, further distressed by line-breeding on popular sires, at the Canine Diversity Project.  Many dog breeders trying to bring awareness to the situation now discuss this regularly.  A link for this study is in the next to last paragraph on our page entitled - http://www.tiarapoodles.com/about.htm  ,  This important study discussion has the honor as the very first link to an outside website we present and is actually based on coefficiency of inbreeding percentages learned about long ago in the earlier part of the 20th Century.

Concerning some of those veterinary practices automatically completed – how about in the early Nineteen-Nineties, as show dog exhibitors and "conscientious" dog owners, we were instructed to vaccinate our dogs every SIX MONTHS.  Sadly, we complied (for about 2 years) with the understanding we continue today, that money was no object, and we wanted “healthy” dogs!  We all know now that this was not a sound immunological recommendation, but that of the veterinary pharmaceutical companies and the veterinarians that chose to follow their recommendations without further study except to “hear” that daily income averages would be increased for their practices!  Another terrible practice included a hormone shot given after whelping that used to be given automatically to all “well-cared” for bitches.  This was known as a “pit” (pituitary) or “let down” (as in let down the breast milk) shot.  We learned early in the Nineties, just after hearing Dr Jean Dodds speak for the first time, that this was not only not necessary, but the question was now posed. “Could some of these “treatments” be contributing to health issues over the lifetime of the bitch or her whelps?”  Why take a chance with today’s dogs or future generations that may be affected by today’s treatments?  No such “pit” shot has been given to our dogs for well over a decade now and none of bitches have ever missed it for a moment.  We have also gone to a far gentler vaccine regime since that time as well.

Now today, you may read about early neutering (some regions use the terms spay and neuter) or be told to do so by your own veterinarian for a pet dog.  When it concerns dogs, I study nearly each day how to better provide for my dogs of today and those I hope to still be producing in thirty years.  Early neutering was started as a political campaign in low income areas to reduce the number of unwanted pets produced by pets belonging to people that did not or could not read about proper custody, care and control of their animals.  It does NOT pertain to most people’s dogs reading this page today.   Again, there is strong movement to neuter early and this time from some dog breeders as well as veterinarians and politicians!  Please study how this is not beneficial to your particular beloved pet.  If it is not beneficial to a canine athlete, it is not beneficial to your house pet unless you admit to not being able to properly provide safe custody of your pet.  For your pets’ sake, please be honest to yourself concerning this.  Also for your pets’ sake, please read the article below.    It is reprinted below with permission from the author, Dr Chris Zink.  Puppies sold by Tiara Standard Poodles are not to be neutered, in consideration for better health, until they are very close to maturity (after 12 months, preferably, 14 months of age).  Contracts with new owners now spell this out.

JBR


Dr. Zink presents Coaching the Canine Athlete seminars worldwide and regularly writes for dog magazines. She is also a consultant on canine sports medicine, evaluating canine structure and locomotion and designing individualized conditioning programs for active dogs.

In her other life, Chris is a veterinary pathologist and an Associate Professor at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, with over 80 scientific publications. There, she teaches Pathology to medical and veterinary students and does AIDS research.

See this article below at: http://www.caninesports.com/index.html

Early Spay-Neuter Considerations for the Canine Athlete
One Veterinarian's Opinion

© 2005 Chris Zink DVM, PhD, DACVP

Neuter or not?

Those of us with responsibility for the health of canine athletes need to continually read and evaluate new scientific studies to ensure that we are taking the most appropriate care of our performance dogs. This article provides evidence through a number of recent studies to suggest that veterinarians and owners working with canine athletes should revisit the standard protocol in which all dogs that are not intended for breeding are spayed and neutered at or before 6 months of age.

Orthopedic Considerations

A study by Salmeri et al in 1991 found that bitches spayed at 7 weeks grew significantly taller than those spayed at 7 months, who were taller than those not spayed (or presumably spayed after the growth plates had closed).(1) A study of 1444 Golden Retrievers performed in 1998 and 1999 also found bitches and dogs spayed and neutered at less than a year of age were significantly taller than those spayed or neutered at more than a year of age.(2) The sex hormones, by communicating with a number of other growth-related hormones, promote the closure of the growth plates at puberty (3), so the bones of dogs or bitches neutered or spayed before puberty continue to grow. Dogs that have been spayed or neutered well before puberty can frequently be identified by their longer limbs, lighter bone structure, narrow chests and narrow skulls. This abnormal growth frequently results in significant alterations in body proportions and particularly the lengths (and therefore weights) of certain bones relative to others. For example, if the femur has achieved its genetically determined normal length at 8 months when a dog gets spayed or neutered, but the tibia, which normally stops growing at 12 to 14 months of age continues to grow, then an abnormal angle may develop at the stifle. In addition, with the extra growth, the lower leg below the stifle likely becomes heavier (because it is longer), and may cause increased stresses on the cranial cruciate ligament. In addition, sex hormones are critical for achieving peak bone density.(4) These structural and physiological alterations may be the reason why at least one recent study showed that spayed and neutered dogs had a higher incidence of CCL rupture.(5) Another recent study showed that dogs spayed or neutered before 5 1/2 months had a significantly higher incidence of hip dysplasia than those spayed or neutered after 5 1/2 months of age, although it should be noted that in this study there were no standard criteria for the diagnosis of hip dysplasia.(6) Nonetheless, breeders of purebred dogs should be cognizant of these studies and should consider whether or not pups they bred were spayed or neutered when considering breeding decisions.

Cancer Considerations

A retrospective study of cardiac tumors in dogs showed that there was a 5 times greater risk of hemangiosarcoma, one of the three most common cancers in dogs, in spayed bitches than intact bitches and a 2.4 times greater risk of hemangiosarcoma in neutered dogs as compared to intact males.(7) A study of 3218 dogs demonstrated that dogs that were neutered before a year of age had a significantly increased chance of developing bone cancer.(8) A separate study showed that neutered dogs had a two-fold higher risk of developing bone cancer.(9) Despite the common belief that neutering dogs helps prevent prostate cancer, at least one study suggests that neutering provides no benefit.(10) There certainly is evidence of a slightly increased risk of mammary cancer in female dogs after one heat cycle, and for increased risk with each subsequent heat. While about 30 % of mammary cancers are malignant, as in humans, when caught and surgically removed early the prognosis is very good.(12) Luckily, canine athletes are handled frequently and generally receive prompt veterinary care.

Behavioral Considerations

The study that identified a higher incidence of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in spayed or neutered dogs also identified an increased incidence of sexual behaviors in males and females that were neutered early.(5) Further, the study that identified a higher incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs neutered or spayed before 5 1/2 months also showed that early age gonadectomy was associated with an increased incidence of noise phobias and undesirable sexual behaviors.(6) A recent report of the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation reported significantly more behavioral problems in spayed and neutered bitches and dogs. The most commonly observed behavioral problem in spayed females was fearful behavior and the most common problem in males was aggression.(12)

Other Health Considerations

A number of studies have shown that there is an increase in the incidence of female urinary incontinence in dogs spayed early (13), although this finding has not been universal. Certainly there is evidence that ovarian hormones are critical for maintenance of genital tissue structure and contractility.(14, 15) Neutering also has been associated with an increased likelihood of urethral sphincter incontinence in males.(16) This problem is an inconvenience, and not usually life-threatening, but nonetheless one that requires the dog to be medicated for life. A health survey of several thousand Golden Retrievers showed that spayed or neutered dogs were more likely to develop hypothyroidism.(2) This study is consistent with the results of another study in which neutering and spaying was determined to be the most significant gender-associated risk factor for development of hypothyroidism.(17) Infectious diseases were more common in dogs that were spayed or neutered at 24 weeks or less as opposed to those undergoing gonadectomy at more than 24 weeks.(18) Finally, the AKC-CHF report demonstrated a higher incidence of adverse reactions to vaccines in neutered dogs as compared to intact.(12)

To spay or not to spay

I have gathered these studies to show that our practice of routinely spaying or neutering every dog at or before the age of 6 months is not a black-and-white issue. Clearly more studies need to be done to evaluate the effects of prepubertal spaying and neutering, particularly in canine athletes.

Currently, I have significant concerns with spaying or neutering canine athletes before puberty. But of course, there is the pet overpopulation problem. How can we prevent the production of unwanted dogs while still leaving the gonads to produce the hormones that are so important to canine growth and development? One answer would be to perform vasectomies in males and tubal ligation in females, to be followed after maturity by ovariohysterectomy in females to prevent mammary cancer and pyometra. One possible disadvantage is that vasectomy does not prevent some unwanted behaviors associated with males such as marking and humping. On the other hand, females and neutered males frequently participate in these behaviors too. Really, training is the best solution for these issues. Another possible disadvantage is finding a veterinarian who is experienced in performing these procedures. Nonetheless, some do, and if the procedures were in greater demand, more veterinarians would learn them.

I believe it is important that we assess each situation individually. For canine athletes, I currently recommend that dogs and bitches be spayed or neutered after 14 months of age.

References:

  1. Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, Shille V.. Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development. JAVMA 1991;198:1193-1203
  2. http://www.grca.org/healthsurvey.pdf
  3. Grumbach MM. Estrogen, bone, growth and sex: a sea change in conventional wisdom. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13 Suppl 6:1439-55.
  4. Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Gibbens DT, Schulz EE, Carlson ME, Gonzalez O, Boechat MI. Effect of sex steroids on peak bone density of growing rabbits. Am J Physiol. 1988 Oct;255(4 Pt 1):E416-21.
  5. Slauterbeck JR, Pankratz K, Xu KT, Bozeman SC, Hardy DM. Canine ovariohysterectomy and orchiectomy increases the prevalence of ACL injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Dec;(429):301-5.
  6. Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA. Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs. JAVMA 2004;224:380-387.
  7. Ware WA, Hopper DL. Cardiac tumors in dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet Intern Med 1999 Mar-Apr;13(2):95-103
  8. Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, Waters D, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1434-40
  9. Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. Host related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. Vet J. 1998 Jul;156(1):31-9.
  10. Obradovich J, Walshaw R, Goullaud E. The influence of castration on the development of prostatic carcinoma in the dog. 43 cases (1978-1985). J Vet Intern Med 1987 Oct-Dec;1(4):183-7
  11. http://www.akcchf.org/pdfs/whitepapers/Biennial_National_Parent_Club_Canine_Health_
    Conference.pdf
  12. Meuten DJ. Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th Edn. Iowa State Press, Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa, p. 575
  13. Stocklin-Gautschi NM, Hassig M, Reichler IM, Hubler M, Arnold S. The relationship of urinary incontinence to early spaying in bitches. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 57:233-6, 2001
  14. Pessina MA, Hoyt RF Jr, Goldstein I, Traish AM. Differential effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on vaginal structural integrity. Endocrinology. 2006 Jan;147(1):61-9.
  15. Kim NN, Min K, Pessina MA, Munarriz R, Goldstein I, Traish AM. Effects of ovariectomy and steroid hormones on vaginal smooth muscle contractility. Int J Impot Res. 2004 Feb;16(1):43-50.
  16. Aaron A, Eggleton K, Power C, Holt PE. Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in male dogs: a retrospective analysis of 54 cases. Vet Rec. 139:542-6, 1996
  17. Panciera DL. Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 204:761-7 1994
  18. Howe LM, Slater MR, Boothe HW, Hobson HP, Holcom JL, Spann AC. Long-term outcome of gonadectomy performed at an early age or traditional age in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jan 15;218(2):217-21.

This article is available for download in Adobe Acrobat PDF format Early Spay Considerations (pdf).

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